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Outbreak of Anthrax | Uitbreking van Miltsiekte

Afrikaans volg:

Media Release from RPO National 30 May 2019

All farmers are requested to urgently vaccinate their animals against anthrax. This includes cattle, sheep and goats.  Anthrax also occurs within game and under no circumstances must venison of infected game, be consumed.

Farmers must also be very cautious when buying in new animals and ensure that the animals are disease-free. The movement of animals (live stock and game) must as far as possible be avoided and if any mortalities occur,  the carcass must be handled with the utmost care and it must under no circumstances be cut open.

This follows after an outbreak of anthrax has been confirmed near Maseru in Lesotho.  In this case, humans also got infected with the disease after the carcasses have been cut open and eaten.

A ten kilometer radius has been quarantined.  Farmers from Ha-Tseka were warned not to take their products to a Maseru trade fair. Even animal movement between the Free State and Lesotho will be restricted and no trade will be allowed.

The areas affected includes Ladybrand in the Maseru-zone, Zastron, Wepener, Maputsoe, Botha Bothet and Thabo Mofutsanyane.

Anthrax is a highly contagious and infectious soil-borne disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a relatively large spore-forming bacteria that can infect mammals.

Animals are infected with anthrax when they eat contagious plant materials, water or even the bones of dead animals. Animals who contract the disease show the following symptoms :-

they don’t eat; there is a decline in milk production; milk may be bloody; breathing is contracted and they often lay down.

Mortalities may occur within 72 hours after infection occurred. In some cases, blood is released from the anus and nasal cavity.

Every milliliter blood contains millions of the anthrax bacteria and this blood infects the environment. The bacteria can survive for as long as 250 years in the environment in the form of a spore. Spores are formed when the infected bodily fluids come in contact with oxygen. For this reason, an anthrax carcass may under no circumstances be opened.

Humans who contract anthrax, develop a skin form of the disease if the wounds are infected; a lung version when they inhale the spores and a gut form of the disease when infected meat is consumed. The lung version is the most lethal.

According to legislation (Act 35 of 1984), it is compulsory to vaccinate all animals annually against Anthrax.

Control of anthrax in animals

  • Animals must annually be vaccinated against the disease.
  • Carcasses of animals that may have died from anthrax must not be cut open.
  • Such carcasses must be buried at least two meters deep and the ground must be comprehensively treated with calcium chloride.
  • Carcasses can also be burned.
  • Suspicious cases must be reported to the nearest state veterinarian.
  • The state veterinarian may prescribe methods to disinfect the area, vehicles and other products.

 Control of anthrax in humans

  • The meat of infected carcasses must not be eaten.
  • All contact with the carcass of an animal who has died from anthrax, must be avoided.
  • Protected clothing must be worn when the carcasses are buried or burned.

Symptoms

  • Animals may die within two hours without displaying any clinical symptoms.
  • Fever
  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • Muscle spasms and red mucosa.
  • Bloody discharge from the nose, mouth and anus.
  • In advanced cases, the head and neck may be swollen.

Diagnosis

 Anthrax is diagnosed with a blood monster.

– ooo O ooo –

Date : 29 May 2019

Enquiries :

Mr Koos van der Ryst                                                             Mr Gerhard Schutte

Chairman                                                                                Chief Executive Officer

Cell : 083 303 7926                                                                 Cell : 082 556 7296

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Nuusvrystelling van RPO Nasionaal 30 Mei 2019

Alle veeboere word versoek om hul beeste, skape en bokke dringend teen miltsiekte in te ent.  Miltsiekte kom ook voor by wild en derhalwe mag wildsvleis wat besmet is met miltsiekte, onder geen omstandighede geëet word nie.

Boere moet ook uiters versigtig wees wanneer nuwe diere ingekoop word en seker maak dat die diere siektevry is. Die beweging van diere (vee en wild) moet sover as moontlik vermy word en indien enige gevalle van vrektes voorkom, moet die karkas met die grootste omsigtigheid hanteer word en nie oopgesny word nie.

Dit volg ná ‘n uitbreking van miltsiekte naby Maseru in Lesotho bevestig is. In dié geval is mense ook met die virus besmet nadat die karkasse oopgesny en die vleis geëet is.

Die besmette gebied is binne ‘n radius van tien kilometer onder kwarantyn geplaas.  Boere van die Ha-Tseka-distrik is gewaarsku om hul diere nie na ‘n skou in Maseru te neem nie en die beweging van diere tussen die Vrystaat en Lesotho sal beperk word en geen handel van diere sal toegelaat word nie.

Die gebiede wat betrokke is sluit in Ladybrand in die Maseru-sone, Zastron, Wepener, Maputsoe, Botha Bothet en Thabo Mofutsanyane.

Miltsiekte word deur ‘n bakterie Bacillus anthracis veroorsaak. Diere kry miltsiekte wanneer hulle besmette plantmateriaal, water of selfs bene van dooie diere inneem.

Diere wat miltsiekte kry, wys die volgende tekens :

hulle vreet nie; het ‘n daling in melkproduksie; melk mag bloederig wees; die diere haal moeilik asem en lê gereeld.

Vrektes kan binne 72 uur ná besmetting plaasvind. In sommige gevalle loop daar bloed uit die anus en neusholtes uit.

Elke milliliter bloed van ‘n dier wat vrek aan miltsiekte, bevat miljoene van die bakterieë.  Hierdie bloed besmet die omgewing.  Die bakterieë kan dan vir tot 250 jaar in die omgewing oorleef as ‘n spoor (weerstandbiedende vorm van die bakterie). Spore word gevorm wanneer besmette liggaamsvloeistof in aanraking kom met suurstof (bv. waar ‘n dier gebloei het, of indien ‘n miltsiektekarkas oopgesny word) Om hierdie rede moet ‘n miltsiektekarkas nooit oopgemaak word nie.

Mense wat miltsiekte opdoen, kry ‘n velvorm van die siekte indien wonde besmet word, ‘n longvorm indien hulle spore inasem en ‘n dermvorm van die siekte indien besmette vleis geëet word. Die longvorm is die dodelikste.

Volgens wetgewing (Wet 35 van 1984) móét alle diere elke jaar teen miltsiekte ingeënt word.

Beheer van miltsiekte by diere

  • Vee moet jaarliks teen die siekte ingeënt word. ·
  • Karkasse van diere wat vermoedelik aan miltsiekte dood is, moenie oopgesny word nie.
  • Sulke karkasse moet ten minste twee meter diep begrawe word en die grond moet deeglik met kalk chloried behandel word.
  • Karkasse kan ook verbrand word sonder dat hulle oopgesny word.
  • Verdagte gevalle moet dadelik by die naaste dieregesondheidstegnikus of staatsveearts aangemeld word.
  • Die staatsveearts kan metodes voorskryf om die terrein, voertuie en ander produkte te ontsmet.

Beheer van miltsiekte by mense

  • Die vleis van besmette karkasse mag nie geëet word nie.
  • Alle kontak met die karkas van ‘n dier wat aan miltsiekte gevrek het, moet vermy word.
  • Beskermende klere moet gedra word wanneer die karkas begrawe of verbrand word.

Simptome

  • Diere kan binne twee ure vrek sonder om enige kliniese simptome te toon.
  • Moeilike asemhaling.
  • Spierspasmas en rooiheid van slymvliese kan voorkom.
  • Bloederige uitskeiding uit die neus, mond en anus.
  • By gevorderde gevalle kan swelling van die kop en nek voorkom, wat tot asemhalings- en slukprobleme kan lei.

Diagnose

Miltsiekte word deur middel van ‘n bloedsmeer gediagnoseer.

– ooo O ooo –

Datum : 29 Mei 2019

Navrae :

Mnr Koos van der Ryst                                                           Mnr Gerhard Schutte

Voorsitter                                                                                Hoof-uitvoerende Beampte

Selfoon :  083 303 7926                                                         Selfoon : 082 556 7296